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29  structures 3884  species 2  interactions 4951  sequences 21  architectures

Family: G6PD_N (PF00479)

Summary: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain

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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase". More...

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Edit Wikipedia article

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
Identifiers
EC number 1.1.1.49
CAS number 9001-40-5
Databases
IntEnz IntEnz view
BRENDA BRENDA entry
ExPASy NiceZyme view
KEGG KEGG entry
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / EGO
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain
PDB 1dpg EBI.jpg
glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase from leuconostoc mesenteroides
Identifiers
Symbol G6PD_N
Pfam PF00479
Pfam clan CL0063
InterPro IPR022674
PROSITE PDOC00067
SCOP 1dpg
SUPERFAMILY 1dpg
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, C-terminal domain
Identifiers
Symbol G6PD_C
Pfam PF02781
PROSITE PDOC00067
SCOP 1dpg
SUPERFAMILY 1dpg
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

PDB rendering based on 1qki.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols G6PD; G6PD1
External IDs OMIM305900 MGI105979 HomoloGene37906 ChEMBL: 5347 GeneCards: G6PD Gene
EC number 1.1.1.49
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE G6PD 202275 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 2539 14381
Ensembl ENSG00000160211 ENSMUSG00000031400
UniProt P11413 Q00612
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000402 NM_008062
RefSeq (protein) NP_000393 NP_032088
Location (UCSC) Chr HG1497_PATCH:
153.74 – 153.76 Mb
Chr X:
74.41 – 74.43 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD or G6PDH) (EC 1.1.1.49) is an cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

D-glucose 6-phosphate + NADP+ \rightleftharpoons 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone + NADPH + H+

This enzyme is in the pentose phosphate pathway (see image), a metabolic pathway that supplies reducing energy to cells (such as erythrocytes) by maintaining the level of the co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). The NADPH in turn maintains the level of glutathione in these cells that helps protect the red blood cells against oxidative damage. Of greater quantitative importance is the production of NADPH for tissues actively engaged in biosynthesis of fatty acids and/or isoprenoids, such as the liver, mammary glands, adipose tissue, and the adrenal glands. G6PD reduces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) to NADPH while oxidizing glucose-6-phosphate.[1]

It is notable in humans when there is a genetic deficiency of G6PD which predisposes to non-immune hemolytic anemia .

Species distribution[edit]

G6PD is widely distributed in many species from bacteria to humans. In higher plants, several isoforms of G6PDH have been reported, which are localized in the cytosol, the plastidic stroma, and peroxisomes.[2]

Regulation[edit]

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is stimulated by its substrate Glucose 6 Phosphate. The usual ratio of NADPH/NADP+ in the cytosol of tissues engaged in biosyntheses is about 100/1. Increased utilization of NADPH for fatty acid biosynthesis will dramatically increase the level of NADP+, thus stimulating G6PD to produce more NADPH.

G6PD converts glucose-6-phosphate into 6-phosphoglucono-δ-lactone and is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway.

G6PD is one of a number of glycolytic enzymes activated by the transcription factor Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1).[3]

Clinical significance[edit]

G6PD is remarkable for its genetic diversity. Many variants of G6PD, mostly produced from missense mutations, have been described with wide ranging levels of enzyme activity and associated clinical symptoms. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[4]

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is very common worldwide, and causes acute hemolytic anemia in the presence of simple infection, ingestion of fava beans, or reaction with certain medicines, antibiotics, antipyretics, and antimalarials.[5]

Pathology of G6PD deficiency.png

Cell growth and proliferation are affected by G6PD.[6] G6PD inhibitors are under investigation to treat cancers and other conditions.[3] DHEA is a G6PD inhibitor.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Aster J, Kumar V, Robbins SL, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Cotran RS (2010). Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. Saunders/Elsevier. pp. Kindle Locations 33340–33341. ISBN 1-4160-3121-9. 
  2. ^ Corpas FJ, Barroso JB, Sandalio LM, Distefano S, Palma JM, Lupiáñez JA, Del Río LA (March 1998). "A dehydrogenase-mediated recycling system of NADPH in plant peroxisomes". Biochem. J. 330 ( Pt 2) (Pt 2): 777–84. PMC 1219205. PMID 9480890. 
  3. ^ a b de Lartigue J (2012-06-12). "Cancer Research Moves Beyond the Original Hallmarks of Cancer". OncLive. 
  4. ^ "Entrez Gene: G6PD glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase". 
  5. ^ Cappellini MD, Fiorelli G (January 2008). "Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency". Lancet 371 (9606): 64–74. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60073-2. PMID 18177777. 
  6. ^ a b Tian WN, Braunstein LD, Pang J, Stuhlmeier KM, Xi QC, Tian X, Stanton RC (April 1998). "Importance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity for cell growth". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (17): 10609–17. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.17.10609. PMID 9553122. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Vulliamy T, Beutler E, Luzzatto L (1993). "Variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase are due to missense mutations spread throughout the coding region of the gene". Hum. Mutat. 2 (3): 159–67. doi:10.1002/humu.1380020302. PMID 8364584. 
  • Mason PJ (1996). "New insights into G6PD deficiency". Br. J. Haematol. 94 (4): 585–91. PMID 8826878. 
  • Wajcman H, Galactéros F (2004). "[Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: a protection against malaria and a risk for hemolytic accidents]". C. R. Biol. 327 (8): 711–20. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2004.07.010. PMID 15506519. 

External links[edit]

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No Pfam abstract.

Literature references

  1. Cosgrove MS, Naylor C, Paludan S, Adams MJ, Levy HR; , Biochemistry. 1998;37:2759-2767.: On the mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. PUBMED:9485426 EPMC:9485426


External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR022674

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC) (G6PDH) is a ubiquitous protein, present in bacteria and all eukaryotic cell types [PUBMED:2838391]. The enzyme catalyses the the first step in the pentose pathway, i.e. the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to gluconolactone 6-phosphate in the presence of NADP, producing NADPH. The ubiquitous expression of the enzyme gives it a major role in the production of NADPH for the many NADPH-mediated reductive processes in all cells [PUBMED:3393536]. Deficiency of G6PDH is a common genetic abnormality affecting millions of people worldwide. Many sequence variants, most caused by single point mutations, are known, exhibiting a wide variety of phenotypes [PUBMED:3393536].

This entry represents the NAD-binding domain of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

Gene Ontology

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Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

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Pfam Clan

This family is a member of clan NADP_Rossmann (CL0063), which contains the following 180 members:

2-Hacid_dh_C 3Beta_HSD 3HCDH_N adh_short adh_short_C2 ADH_zinc_N ADH_zinc_N_2 AdoHcyase_NAD AdoMet_MTase AlaDh_PNT_C Amino_oxidase ApbA AviRa Bac_GDH Bin3 CheR CMAS CmcI CoA_binding CoA_binding_2 CoA_binding_3 Cons_hypoth95 DAO DapB_N DFP DNA_circ_N DNA_methylase DOT1 DREV dTMP_synthase DUF1442 DUF1776 DUF2431 DUF268 DUF3321 DUF43 DUF633 DUF938 DXP_redisom_C DXP_reductoisom Eco57I ELFV_dehydrog Eno-Rase_FAD_bd Eno-Rase_NADH_b Enoyl_reductase Epimerase F420_oxidored FAD_binding_2 FAD_binding_3 FAD_oxidored Fibrillarin FMO-like FmrO FtsJ G-7-MTase G6PD_N GCD14 GDI GFO_IDH_MocA GIDA GidB GLF Glyco_hydro_4 GMC_oxred_N Gp_dh_N GRAS GRDA HI0933_like HIM1 IlvN K_oxygenase KR LCM Ldh_1_N Lycopene_cycl Malic_M Mannitol_dh Met_10 Methyltrans_Mon Methyltrans_SAM Methyltransf_10 Methyltransf_11 Methyltransf_12 Methyltransf_15 Methyltransf_16 Methyltransf_17 Methyltransf_18 Methyltransf_19 Methyltransf_2 Methyltransf_20 Methyltransf_21 Methyltransf_22 Methyltransf_23 Methyltransf_24 Methyltransf_25 Methyltransf_26 Methyltransf_27 Methyltransf_28 Methyltransf_29 Methyltransf_3 Methyltransf_30 Methyltransf_31 Methyltransf_32 Methyltransf_4 Methyltransf_5 Methyltransf_7 Methyltransf_8 Methyltransf_9 Methyltransf_PK MethyltransfD12 MetW Mg-por_mtran_C Mqo MT-A70 MTS Mur_ligase N2227 N6-adenineMlase N6_Mtase N6_N4_Mtase NAD_binding_10 NAD_binding_11 NAD_binding_2 NAD_binding_3 NAD_binding_4 NAD_binding_5 NAD_binding_7 NAD_binding_8 NAD_binding_9 NAD_Gly3P_dh_N NAS NmrA NNMT_PNMT_TEMT NodS Nol1_Nop2_Fmu Nol1_Nop2_Fmu_2 NSP13 OCD_Mu_crystall PARP_regulatory PCMT PDH Polysacc_synt_2 Pox_MCEL Prenylcys_lyase PrmA PRMT5 Pyr_redox Pyr_redox_2 Pyr_redox_3 RmlD_sub_bind Rossmann-like rRNA_methylase RrnaAD Rsm22 RsmJ Saccharop_dh SAM_MT SE Semialdhyde_dh Shikimate_DH Spermine_synth Strep_67kDa_ant TehB THF_DHG_CYH_C Thi4 ThiF TPMT TrkA_N TRM TRM13 tRNA_U5-meth_tr Trp_halogenase TylF Ubie_methyltran UDPG_MGDP_dh_N UPF0020 UPF0146 V_cholerae_RfbT XdhC_C YjeF_N

Alignments

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  Seed
(117)
Full
(4951)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(3729)
Meta
(762)
RP15
(344)
RP35
(698)
RP55
(973)
RP75
(1192)
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  Seed
(117)
Full
(4951)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(3729)
Meta
(762)
RP15
(344)
RP35
(698)
RP55
(973)
RP75
(1192)
Alignment:
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  Seed
(117)
Full
(4951)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(3729)
Meta
(762)
RP15
(344)
RP35
(698)
RP55
(973)
RP75
(1192)
Raw Stockholm Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  
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You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

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Pfam alignments:

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Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Prosite
Previous IDs: G6PD;
Type: Domain
Author: Finn RD, Griffiths-Jones SR
Number in seed: 117
Number in full: 4951
Average length of the domain: 172.30 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 37 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 36.68 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 21.7 21.7
Trusted cut-off 22.5 22.3
Noise cut-off 21.5 21.3
Model length: 183
Family (HMM) version: 17
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Species distribution

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Interactions

There are 2 interactions for this family. More...

G6PD_N G6PD_C

Structures

For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the G6PD_N domain has been found. There are 29 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.

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