Summary: D12 class N6 adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase
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DNA methyltransferase Edit Wikipedia article
|N-6 DNA Methylase|
crystal structure of type i restriction enzyme ecoki m protein (ec 188.8.131.52) (m.ecoki)
|HsdM N-terminal domain|
|C-5 cytosine-specific DNA methylase|
structure of human dnmt2, an enigmatic dna methyltransferase homologue
crystal structure of methyltransferase mboiia (moraxella bovis)
In biochemistry, the DNA methyltransferase (DNA MTase) family of enzymes catalyze the transfer of a methyl group to DNA. DNA methylation serves a wide variety of biological functions. All the known DNA methyltransferases use S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) as the methyl donor.
MTases can be divided into three different groups on the basis of the chemical reactions they catalyze:
- m6A - those that generate N6-methyladenine EC 184.108.40.206
- m4C - those that generate N4-methylcytosine EC 220.127.116.11
- m5C - those that generate C5-methylcytosine EC 18.104.22.168
m6A and m4C methyltransferases are found primarily in prokaryotes. m5C methyltransfereases are found in some lower eukaryotes, in most higher plants, and in animals beginning with the echinoderms.
m6A methyltransferases (N-6 adenine-specific DNA methylase) (A-Mtase) are enzymes that specifically methylate the amino group at the C-6 position of adenines in DNA. They are found in the three existing types of bacterial restriction-modification systems (in type I system the A-Mtase is the product of the hsdM gene, and in type III it is the product of the mod gene). These enzymes are responsible for the methylation of specific DNA sequences in order to prevent the host from digesting its own genome via its restriction enzymes. These methylases have the same sequence specificity as their corresponding restriction enzymes. These enzymes contain a conserved motif Asp/Asn-Pro-Pro-Tyr/Phe in their N-terminal section, this conserved region could be involved in substrate binding or in the catalytic activity. The structure of N6-MTase TaqI (M.TaqI) has been resolved to 2.4 A. The molecule folds into 2 domains, an N-terminal catalytic domain, which contains the catalytic and cofactor binding sites, and comprises a central 9-stranded beta-sheet, surrounded by 5 helices; and a C-terminal DNA recognition domain, which is formed by 4 small beta-sheets and 8 alpha-helices. The N- and C-terminal domains form a cleft that accommodates the DNA substrate. A classification of N-MTases has been proposed, based on conserved motif (CM) arrangements. According to this classification, N6-MTases that have a DPPY motif (CM II) occurring after the FxGxG motif (CM I) are designated D12 class N6-adenine MTases. The type I restriction and modification system is composed of three polypeptides R, M and S. The M (hsdM) and S subunits together form a methyltransferase that methylates two adenine residues in complementary strands of a bipartite DNA recognition sequence. In the presence of the R subunit, the complex can also act as an endonuclease, binding to the same target sequence but cutting the DNA some distance from this site. Whether the DNA is cut or modified depends on the methylation state of the target sequence. When the target site is unmodified, the DNA is cut. When the target site is hemimethylated, the complex acts as a maintenance methyltransferase, modifying the DNA so that both strands become methylated. hsdM contains an alpha-helical domain at the N-terminus, the HsdM N-terminal domain.
m4C methyltransferases (N-4 cytosine-specific DNA methylases) are enzymes that specifically methylate the amino group at the C-4 position of cytosines in DNA. Such enzymes are found as components of type II restriction-modification systems in prokaryotes. Such enzymes recognise a specific sequence in DNA and methylate a cytosine in that sequence. By this action they protect DNA from cleavage by type II restriction enzymes that recognise the same sequence
m5C methyltransferases (C-5 cytosine-specific DNA methylase) (C5 Mtase) are enzymes that specifically methylate the C-5 carbon of cytosines in DNA to produce C5-methylcytosine. In mammalian cells, cytosine-specific methyltransferases methylate certain CpG sequences, which are believed to modulate gene expression and cell differentiation. In bacteria, these enzymes are a component of restriction-modification systems and serve as valuable tools for the manipulation of DNA. The structure of HhaI methyltransferase (M.HhaI) has been resolved to 2.5 A: the molecule folds into 2 domains - a larger catalytic domain containing catalytic and cofactor binding sites, and a smaller DNA recognition domain.
De novo and maintenance DNA MTases
De novo methyltransferases recognize something in the DNA that allows them to newly methylate cytosines. These are expressed mainly in early embryo development and they set up the pattern of methylation.
Maintenance methyltransferases add methylation to DNA when one strand is already methylated. These work throughout the life of the organism to maintain the methylation pattern that had been established by the de novo methyltransferases IS.
Mammalian DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)
Three active DNA methyltransferases have been identified in mammals. They are named DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B. A fourth enzyme previously known as DNMT2 is not a DNA methyltransferase (see below).
DNMT1 is the most abundant DNA methyltransferase in mammalian cells, and considered to be the key maintenance methyltransferase in mammals. It predominantly methylates hemimethylated CpG di-nucleotides in the mammalian genome. This enzyme is 7â to 100-fold more active on hemimethylated DNA as compared with unmethylated substrate in vitro, but it is still more active at de novo methylation than other DNMTs. The recognition motif for the human enzyme involves only three of the bases in the CpG dinuclotide pair: a C on one strand and CpG on the other. This relaxed substrate specificity requirement allows it to methylate unusual structures like DNA slippage intermediates at de novo rates that equal its maintenance rate. Like other DNA cytosine-5 methyltransferases the human enzyme recognizes flipped out cytosines in double stranded DNA and operates by the nucleophilic attack mechanism. In human cancer cells DNMT1 is responsible for both de novo and maintenance methylation of tumor suppressor genes. The enzyme is about 1,620 amino acids long. The first 1,100 amino acids constitute the regulatory domain of the enzyme, and the remaining residues constitute the catalytic domain. These are joined by Gly-Lys repeats. Both domains are required for the catalytic function of DNMT1.
DNMT1 has several isoforms, the somatic DNMT1, a splice variant (DNMT1b) and an oocyte-specific isoform (DNMT1o). DNMT1o is synthesized and stored in the cytoplasm of the oocyte and translocated to the cell nucleus during early embryonic development, while the somatic DNMT1 is always found in the nucleus of somatic tissue.
DNMT1 null mutant embryonic stem cells were viable and contained a small percentage of methylated DNA and methyltransferase activity. Mouse embryos homozygous for a deletion in Dnmt1 die at 10â11 days gestation.
TRDMT1 (formerly known as DNMT2)
Although this enzyme has strong sequence similarities with 5-methylcytosine methyltransferases of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, in 2006, the enzyme was shown to methylate position 38 in aspartic acid transfer RNA and does not methylate DNA. To reflect this different function, the name for this methyltransferase has been changed to TRDMT1 (tRNA aspartic acid methyltransferase 1) to better reflect its biological function. TRDMT1 is the first RNA cytosine methyltransferase to be identified in a human.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (November 2010)|
DNMT3 is a family of DNA methyltransferases that could methylate hemimethylated and unmethylated CpG at the same rate. The architecture of DNMT3 enzymes is similar to that of DNMT1, with a regulatory region attached to a catalytic domain. There are three known members of the DNMT3 family: DNMT3a, 3b, and 3L.
DNMT3a and DNMT3b can mediate methylation-independent gene repression. DNMT3a can co-localize with heterochromatin protein (HP1) and methyl-CpG-binding protein (MeCBP). They can also interact with DNMT1, which might be a co-operative event during DNA methylation. DNMT3a prefers CpG methylation to CpA, CpT, and CpC methylation, though there appears to be some sequence preference of methylation for DNMT3a and DNMT3b. DNMT3a methylates CpG sites at a rate much slower than DNMT1, but greater than DNMT3b.
DNMT3L contains DNA methyltransferase motifs and is required for establishing maternal genomic imprints, despite being catalytically inactive. DNMT3L is expressed during gametogenesis when genomic imprinting takes place. The loss of DNMT3L leads to bi-allelic expression of genes normally not expressed by the maternal allele. DNMT3L interacts with DNMT3a and DNMT3b and co-localized in the nucleus. Though DNMT3L appears incapable of methylation, it may participate in transcriptional repression.
- Vidaza (5-azacitidine) in a phase II trial for AML
- Dacogen (decitabine) in phase III trials for AML and CML
- Loenen WA, Daniel AS, Braymer HD, Murray NE (November 1987). "Organization and sequence of the hsd genes of Escherichia coli K-12". J. Mol. Biol. 198 (2): 159â70. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(87)90303-2. PMID 3323532.
- Narva KE, Van Etten JL, Slatko BE, Benner JS (December 1988). "The amino acid sequence of the eukaryotic DNA [N6-adenine]methyltransferase, M.CviBIII, has regions of similarity with the prokaryotic isoschizomer M.TaqI and other DNA [N6-adenine] methyltransferases". Gene 74 (1): 253â9. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(88)90298-3. PMID 3248728.
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- "DNMT3B". Gene Symbol Report. HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. Retrieved 2012-09-27.
- "DNMT3L". Gene Symbol Report. HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. Retrieved 2012-09-27.
- Mark R. Kho, David J.Baker, Ali Layoon, and Steven S. Smith (1998). "Stalling of Human DNA (Cytosine-5) Methyltransferase at Single Strand Conformers form a Site of Dynamic Mutation". Journal of Molecular Biology 275 (1): 67â79. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1997.1430. PMID 9451440.
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- Kam-Wing Jair, Kurtis E. Bachman, Hiromu Suzuki, Angela H.Ting, Ina Rhee, Ray-Whay Chiu Yen, Stephen B. Baylin and Kornel E. Schuebel (2006). "De novo CpG Island Methylation in Human Cancer Cells". Cancer Research 69 (2): 682â692. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1980. PMID 16423997.
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- M.G. Goll, F. Kirpekar, K.A. Maggert, J.A. Yoder, C-L. Hsieh, X. Zhang, K.G. Golic, S.E. Jacobsen, T.H. Bestor (2006). "Methylation of tRNAAsp by the DNA Methyltransferase Homolog Dnmt2". Science 311 (5759): 395â398. doi:10.1126/science.1120976. PMID 16424344.
- "TRDMT1 tRNA aspartic acid methyltransferase 1 (Homo sapiens)". Entrez Gene. NCBI. 2010-11-01. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
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- S S Smith (1994). Biological Implications of the Mechanism of Action of Human DNA (Cytosine-5) Methyltransferase Progress in Nucleic Acids Research and Molecular Biology 49: 65â111. 
- S Pradhan & PO Esteve (2003). Mammalian DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferases and their expression. Clinical Immunology 109: 6â16. 
- MG Goll and TH Bestor (2005). Eukaryotic cytosine methyltransferase. Annual Review of Biochemistry 74: 481â514 
- SvedruziÄ ZM (2008). "Mammalian cytosine DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1: enzymatic mechanism, novel mechanism-based inhibitors, and RNA-directed DNA methylation". Curr. Med. Chem. 15 (1): 92â106. doi:10.2174/092986708783330700. PMID 18220765.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Polymerase chain reaction|
- Information about DNA methyltransferases and DNA methylation at epigeneticstation.com
- Data for a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) Antibody
- DNA Modification Methyltransferases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
D12 class N6 adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase Provide feedback
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Internal database links
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||Cons_hypoth95|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR012327
In prokaryotes, the major role of DNA methylation is to protect host DNA against degradation by restriction enzymes. There are 2 major classes of DNA methyltransferase that differ in the nature of the modifications they effect. The members of one class (C-MTases) methylate a ring carbon and form C5-methylcytosine (see INTERPRO). Members of the second class (N-MTases) methylate exocyclic nitrogens and form either N4-methylcytosine (N4-MTases) or N6-methyladenine (N6-MTases). Both classes of MTase utilise the cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) as the methyl donor and are active as monomeric enzymes [PUBMED:7663118].
N-6 adenine-specific DNA methylases (EC) (A-Mtase) are enzymes that specifically methylate the amino group at the C-6 position of adenines in DNA. Such enzymes are found in the three existing types of bacterial restriction-modification systems (in type I system the A-Mtase is the product of the hsdM gene, and in type III it is the product of the mod gene). All of these enzymes recognise a specific sequence in DNA and methylate an adenine in that sequence. It has been shown [PUBMED:3323532, PUBMED:3248728, PUBMED:2541254, PUBMED:7607512] that A-Mtases contain a conserved motif Asp/Asn-Pro-Pro-Tyr/Phe in their N-terminal section, this conserved region could be involved in substrate binding or in the catalytic activity. The structure of N6-MTase TaqI (M.TaqI) has been resolved to 2.4 A [PUBMED:7971991]. The molecule folds into 2 domains, an N-terminal catalytic domain, which contains the catalytic and cofactor binding sites, and comprises a central 9-stranded beta-sheet, surrounded by 5 helices; and a C-terminal DNA recognition domain, which is formed by 4 small beta-sheets and 8 alpha-helices. The N- and C-terminal domains form a cleft that accommodates the DNA substrate. A classification of N-MTases has been proposed, based on conserved motif (CM) arrangements [PUBMED:7607512]. According to this classification, N6-MTases that have a DPPY motif (CM II) occuring after the FxGxG motif (CM I) are designated D12 class N6-adenine MTases.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||site-specific DNA-methyltransferase (adenine-specific) activity (GO:0009007)|
|Biological process||DNA methylation on adenine (GO:0032775)|
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Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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|Author:||Mian N, Bateman A|
|Number in seed:||27|
|Number in full:||3733|
|Average length of the domain:||233.30 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||24 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||80.29 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||10|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
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We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There is 1 interaction for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the MethyltransfD12 domain has been found. There are 21 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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