Summary: Peptidase C39 family
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Peptidase C39 family Provide feedback
Lantibiotic and non-lantibiotic bacteriocins are synthesised as precursor peptides containing N-terminal extensions (leader peptides) which are cleaved off during maturation. Most non-lantibiotics and also some lantibiotics have leader peptides of the so-called double-glycine type. These leader peptides share consensus sequences and also a common processing site with two conserved glycine residues in positions -1 and -2. The double- glycine-type leader peptides are unrelated to the N-terminal signal sequences which direct proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane via the sec pathway. Their processing sites are also different from typical signal peptidase cleavage sites, suggesting that a different processing enzyme is involved. Peptide bacteriocins are exported across the cytoplasmic membrane by a dedicated ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. The ABC transporter is the maturation protease and its proteolytic domain resides in the N-terminal part of the protein . This peptidase domain is found in a wide range of ABC transporters, however the presumed catalytic cysteine and histidine are not conserved in all members of this family.
Havarstein LS, Diep DB, Nes IF; , Mol Microbiol 1995;16:229-240.: A family of bacteriocin ABC transporters carry out proteolytic processing of their substrates concomitant with export. PUBMED:7565085 EPMC:7565085
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This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR005074
In the MEROPS database peptidases and peptidase homologues are grouped into clans and families. Clans are groups of families for which there is evidence of common ancestry based on a common structural fold:
- Each clan is identified with two letters, the first representing the catalytic type of the families included in the clan (with the letter 'P' being used for a clan containing families of more than one of the catalytic types serine, threonine and cysteine). Some families cannot yet be assigned to clans, and when a formal assignment is required, such a family is described as belonging to clan A-, C-, M-, N-, S-, T- or U-, according to the catalytic type. Some clans are divided into subclans because there is evidence of a very ancient divergence within the clan, for example MA(E), the gluzincins, and MA(M), the metzincins.
- Peptidase families are grouped by their catalytic type, the first character representing the catalytic type: A, aspartic; C, cysteine; G, glutamic acid; M, metallo; N, asparagine; S, serine; T, threonine; and U, unknown. The serine, threonine and cysteine peptidases utilise the amino acid as a nucleophile and form an acyl intermediate - these peptidases can also readily act as transferases. In the case of aspartic, glutamic and metallopeptidases, the nucleophile is an activated water molecule. In the case of the asparagine endopeptidases, the nucleophile is asparagine and all are self-processing endopeptidases.
In many instances the structural protein fold that characterises the clan or family may have lost its catalytic activity, yet retain its function in protein recognition and binding.
Cysteine peptidases have characteristic molecular topologies, which can be seen not only in their three-dimensional structures, but commonly also in the two-dimensional structures. These are peptidases in which the nucleophile is the sulphydryl group of a cysteine residue. Cysteine proteases are divided into clans (proteins which are evolutionary related), and further sub-divided into families, on the basis of the architecture of their catalytic dyad or triad [PUBMED:11517925].
This group of sequences defined by this cysteine peptidase domain belong to the MEROPS peptidase family C39 (clan CA). It is found in a wide range of ABC transporters, which are maturation proteases for peptide bacteriocins, the proteolytic domain residing in the N-terminal region of the protein [PUBMED:7674922]. A number of the proteins are classified as non-peptidase homologues as they either have been found experimentally to be without peptidase activity, or lack amino acid residues that are believed to be essential for the catalytic activity.
Lantibiotic and non-lantibiotic bacteriocins are synthesised as precursor peptides containing N-terminal extensions (leader peptides) which are cleaved off during maturation. Most non-lantibiotics and also some lantibiotics have leader peptides of the so-called double-glycine type. These leader peptides share consensus sequences and also a common processing site with two conserved glycine residues in positions -1 and -2. The double- glycine-type leader peptides are unrelated to the N-terminal signal sequences which direct proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane via the sec pathway. Their processing sites are also different from typical signal peptidase cleavage sites, suggesting that a different processing enzyme is involved.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||integral to membrane (GO:0016021)|
|Molecular function||peptidase activity (GO:0008233)|
|ATP binding (GO:0005524)|
|Biological process||proteolysis (GO:0006508)|
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Curation and family details
|Seed source:||Bateman A|
|Number in seed:||36|
|Number in full:||3484|
|Average length of the domain:||127.90 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||24 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||22.09 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||10|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Peptidase_C39 domain has been found. There are 2 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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